CB57. Argentina. Timeline 1900 To The Present

17 May CB57. Argentina. Timeline 1900 To The Present

Argentina has 46 million people. It has an area of 2,780,400 km2 and covers the southern half of South America. It is the second largest country in South America after Brazil, and the eighth largest country in the world. It is bordered by Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Its largest city and the federal capital is Buenos Aires. Greater Buenos Aires is home to about one-third of the Argentine people. Argentina encompasses immense plains (pampas), deserts, tundra, and forests, as well as tall mountains, rivers, and thousands of kilometres of ocean shoreline. In the 16th century, Spain colonised Argentina. Heavy immigration, particularly from Spain and Italy, has produced in Argentina a people who are almost all of European ancestry. The late 18th century saw the emergence of the gauchos of the pampas (similar to the cowboys of USA). In 1810, Napoleon Bonaparte’s forces conquered all major Spanish cities in Spain, and the Argentine people were empowered to take control of their country. Following three centuries of Spanish colonisation, Argentina declared independence in 1816. Between 1870 and 1900, Buenos Aires’ economy boomed, and immigrants poured in from Spain, Italy, Germany, and Eastern Europe. The famous dance ‘tango’ developed around this time. As much of the southern pampas and Patagonia were inaccessible for settlers because of resistance from indigenous peoples, an extermination campaign called ‘Conquest of the Desert’ was carried out against the indigenous people. The campaign doubled the area under state control and opened Patagonia to settlement and sheep. In 1896, Argentina’s GDP per capita surpassed USA’s. It was however a fleeting golden age. After the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline. In 1946, Juan Peron became president due to his popularity with the working class. His wife, Eva Marie Duarte, known as Evita, formed a foundation and gave out cash and benefits to the poor. When she died of cancer in 1952, the people were very sad. She was a symbol of hope to all the poor in Argentina. Juan Peron was forced out of office after he tried to increase his powers. Even after he left office, his followers continued to fight for political power. After many violent years and a near civil war, Juan Peron was re-elected president and his new third wife, Isabel, became vice president. More political disruption followed. After the Falklands War in 1982, the country moved toward democracy and civilian rule.

  1. In about 2,000 words, I will describe major events that affected Argentina from 1900 to the present.
  2. 1900 – Argentina is one of the world’s wealthiest nations (richest in South America) and a major exporter of agricultural goods – due to decades of liberal economic and immigration policies that lead to rapid income and population growth as well as progressive education and social policies. The population of Argentina is about 4 million.
  3. 1908 – Argentina has the seventh highest per capita income in the world.
  4. 1910 – The centennial of Argentina’s independence is celebrated in Buenos Aires.
  5. 1912 – Full adult male suffrage is introduced.
  6. 1916 – Hipolito Yrigoyen of the Radical party is elected president and introduces a minimum wage to counter the effects of inflation. Hipolito Yrigoyen is elected again in 1928.
  7. 1918 – Students’ strikes and demonstrations enforce the university reform of shared powers between teachers, graduates, and students. The reform set up the freedom for universities to define their own curriculum and manage their own budget without interference from the central government. This has had a profound effect on academic life at the universities through the nationalisation process that boasts academic freedom and independence throughout the university life.
  8. 1927 – Aircraft factory founded in Cordoba.
  9. 1929 – The Great Depression hits Argentina.
  10. 1930 – Armed forces coup ousts President Hipolito Yrigoyen amid sharp economic downturn caused by Great Depression – General Jose Felix Uriburu becomes president. His is the first of a series of successful coups and unconstitutional governments that come  to power in 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966 and 1976.
  11. 1931 (to 1932) – General Agustin Justo is declared winner of Presidency following ‘patriotic fraud’ in election. Agustin Justo seeks to distance himself from Jose Felix Uriburu, who counts  on a large group of supporters among the military officials but could not get the same support from the political parties. With the support from the political parties, Agustin Justo easily wins the presidency, although under suspicion of fraud. Civilian rule is restored, but economic decline continues.
  12. 1939 – World War Two. Argentina is neutral.
  13. 1942 – Argentina, along with Chile, refuses to break diplomatic relations with Japan and Germany after the Japanese attack on USA Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbour.
  14. 1943 – Nationalist army officers seize power in protest of stagnation and electoral fraud. One of the leaders is Colonel Juan Peron. ‘National Revolution’ led by nationalist military officers including Colonel Juan Peron ensure continued non-intervention in World War Two.
  15. 1945 – Argentina joins the Allies and declares war on Japan and Germany. World War Two comes to an end. Argentina is admitted as a founding member of the United Nations.
  16. 1945 – Juan Peron and Eva Marie Duarte, also known as Evita, are married.
  17. 1946 – Juan Peron is elected president, ushering in an era of populist policies and social reforms – promising higher wages and social security. He increases the power of the president, censors the media, establishes government programs, and imprisons rivals. His wife, Eva ‘Evita’ Peron, who becomes a popular figure, is put in charge of labour relations.
  18. 1946 – Indigenous people march to Buenos Aires to demand land rights. The Malón de la Paz is a march of indigenous peoples of north-western Argentina to the capital, Buenos Aires, demanding the restitution of their ancestral lands. The participants march about 2,000 kms to present their claims to President Juan Peron. No outcome. President Juan Peron instead declare that the Malón de la Paz “did not represent the authentic indigenous inhabitants of our north” and claim that they have come by train and motor vehicles rather than on foot. Moreover, he says, some are not even from the north of Argentina but have been born in the north of the province of Buenos Aires and are unwilling to return.
  19. 1947 – Women’s suffrage is approved.
  20. 1949 – A new constitution strengthens the power of the president. Opponents are imprisoned and independent newspapers are suppressed.
  21. 1950 – Flight of the first jet fighter to be entirely developed and built in Latin America.
  22. 1951 – Juan Peron is re-elected with a huge majority, but his support begins to decline after Eva ‘Evita’ Peron dies the following year.
  23. 1952 – Eva ‘Evita’ Peron is named the “Spiritual Leader of the Nation.” She dies later in the year from cancer.
  24. 1954 – Isolationism and high inflation ruin Argentina’s economy.
  25. 1955 – A military coup overthrows Juan Peron and begins a period of political instability. Juan Peron goes into exile in Spain.
  26. 1958 – Arturo Frondizi is elected president.
  27. 1958 – The first aircraft carrier of the Argentine Navy enters service.
  28. 1963 – Arturo Illia becomes president.
  29. 1962 – Military coup ends presidency of civilian Arturo Illia.
  30. 1966 – After years of unstable civilian government, another military coup takes place, and General Juan Carlos Onganía becomes the new president.
  31. 1969 – Rioting occurs in Cordoba. Thousands of citizens rout the army and police and take control of Cordoba for two days.
  32. 1970 – General Alejandro Lanusse emerges as president after Juan Carlos Onganía is toppled.
  33. 1973 – The Ezeiza massacre takes place upon Juan Peron’s return from exile, when members of the Triple A open fire on the crowd awaiting him.
  34. 1973 – Democratic elections bring Peronist Hector Campora to power. Juan Peron is elected president in fresh elections later that year. His new wife, Isabel Peron, becomes vice president.
  35. 1974 – Juan Peron dies. His third wife, Isabel Peron, succeeds him and becomes president. Terrorism from right and left escalates, leaving hundreds dead amid strikes, protests and rampant inflation.
  36. 1976 – A military coup occurs, takes over the government and removes Isabel Peron from office, leading to a period of state terrorism known as the Dirty War, in which tens of thousands of people are kidnapped, tortured, and killed on suspicion of left-wing sympathies. The military government is led by Jorge Videla. It is estimated that 30,000 people died during the Dirty War.
  37. 1978 – Argentina hosts  and wins  the Football World Cup.
  38. 1978 – Argentina rejects the binding Beagle Channel Arbitration and starts Operation Soberania to invade Chile.
  39. 1982 – With the economy on the brink of collapse once again, Leader General Leopoldo Galtieri sends  troops to the Falkland Islands triggering the Falklands War, unleashing a wave of nationalism, and distracting the country from its problems. The British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher sends a task force which retake the islands after a brief war.
  40. 1983 – After the failure of the Falklands War and with the economy in trouble, the military government collapses. The junta, reeling from the Falklands fiasco, restores democracy and holds elections. Raul Alfonsin becomes president.
  41. 1984 – The Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Argentina and Chile ends border dispute over Picton, Nueva and Lennox islands.
  42. 1984 – Embalse Nuclear Power Plant begins operations.
  43. 1986 – Argentina wins the Football World Cup, captained by Diego Maradona.
  44. 1989 – Hyper-inflation and political turmoil result in Carlos Menem of the Peronist party being elected president, marking the beginning of a period of economic liberalisation and privatization.
  45. 1990 – Neo-liberal economic policies and privatisations bring general strikes, hunger strikes and political party realignments.
  46. 1990 – Full diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom are restored, although Argentina maintains claim to Falklands.
  47. 1992 – Argentina introduces a new currency, the peso, which is pegged to the US dollar.
  48. 1994 – A Jewish community centre in Buenos Aires is bombed, 86 people are killed, and more than 200 injured in Argentina’s worst terrorist atrocity. Prosecutors accuse Iran and its Lebanese Hezbollah allies of responsibility.
  49. 1994 – The murder of Conscript Omar Carrasco leads  to the abolition of Conscription (compulsory military service).
  50. 1995 – Carlos Menem wins a second term as president.
  51. 1999 – Fernando de la Rua of the centre-left Alianza opposition coalition wins the presidency; inherits a 114-billion-dollar public debt after a year of recession.
  52. 2000 – Hitech company INVAP is chosen by Australia to design and construct the OPAL nuclear reactor.
  53. 2001 – Much of the country is brought to a standstill by a general strike in protest against proposed government spending cuts. The country’s credit ratings slip.
  54. 2001 – The severe economic crisis leads to the resignation of Fernando de la Rua. Adolfo Rodríguez Saá becomes the new interim president.
  55. 2001 – IMF stops $1.3bn in aid and banks shut down. President Fernando de la Rua resigns after at least 25 people die in riotings.
  56. 2001 – The opposition Peronists take control of both houses of parliament in congressional elections.
  57. 2002 – Congress elects Peronist Senator Eduardo Duhalde as caretaker president. Within days the government devalues the peso, ending 10 years of parity with the US dollar.
  58. 2002 – Argentina defaults on an $800m debt repayment to the World Bank.
  59. 2003 – Mainstream Peronist candidate Nestor Kirchner is elected president, and his administration focuses on social and economic reforms.
  60. 2003 – After weeks of negotiations Argentina and IMF agree on a debt-refinancing deal under which Buenos Aires will only pay interest on its loans.
  61. 2004 – More than 100,000 people demonstrate  in Buenos Aires in support of Juan Carlos Blumberg, father of murdered student Axel Blumberg, demanding harsher criminal laws.
  62. 2005 – Supreme Court approves repeal of amnesty law that has  protected former military officers suspected of human rights abuses during military rule in 1976-1983 (the Dirty War). Congress votes  to scrap the amnesty in 2003.
  63. 2006 – Argentina repays its multi-billion-dollar debt to the IMF.
  64. 2007 – Catholic priest Christian Von Wernich is found guilty of involvement in seven murders and 42 cases of kidnapping and torture related to the state-sponsored Dirty War. He is sentenced to life imprisonment.
  65. 2007 – Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, is elected president – the first elected female president of Argentina. She is the wife of the former president Nestor Kirchner.
  66. 2009 – Legislative elections result in President Cristina Fernandez’s Peronist party losing its absolute majorities in both houses of parliament.
  67. 2009 – Argentine parliament passes law claiming Falkland Islands and several other British overseas territories in the area. Falkland Islanders overwhelmingly prefer to remain British who following the British victory in the Falklands War, are granted full British citizenship. China has backed Argentina’s sovereignty claim, reciprocating Argentina’s support of China’s claim to Taiwan and denying its independence. Conversely, Taiwan acknowledges British sovereignty and ignores Argentina’s sovereignty claim.
  68. 2010 – Argentina imposes new controls on ships passing through its waters to Falkland Islands in response to plans by a British company to drill for oil near the islands. Argentina says boats sailing to the British-ruled Falkland Islands will need a government permit.
  69. 2011 – Benefiting from strong economic growth, President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner wins a second term with a landslide 54% of the vote.
  70. 2012 – Congress approves a law to lower the voting age to 16.
  71. 2013 – Argentina becomes the first country to be censured by the IMF (International Monetary Fund) for not providing accurate data on inflation and economic growth, under a procedure that can end in expulsion.
  72. 2013 – Falkland Islanders vote overwhelmingly in favour of remaining a British overseas territory. Of 1,517 votes cast in the two-day referendum – on a turnout of more than 90% – 1,513 are in favour, while three votes are against.
  73. 2013 – Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Buenos Aires is chosen as Pope. He is the first Latin American to lead the Roman Catholic Church and takes the name of Francis.
  74. 2014 – Argentina defaults on its international debt for the second time in 13 years, after failing to resolve its differences with USA hedge funds that hold 1.3bn dollars’ worth of bonds, bought at a discount after the country last defaulted.
  75. 2015 – Prominent prosecutor Alberto Nisman is found dead in mysterious circumstances, after accusing the government of a cover-up over the country’s worst terrorist attack – the 1994 bombing of a Jewish community centre in Buenos Aires that leaves 85 people dead and 200 injured.
  76. 2015 – Conservative Mayor of Buenos Aires, Mauricio Macri beats Peronist Daniel Scioli in a run-off presidential election.
  77. 2015 – President Mauricio Macri’s administration implements austerity measures and seeks to attract foreign investment.
  78. 2016 – Argentina agrees to settle a multi-billion-dollar dispute with USA hedge funds over bond repayments, which has restricted the country’s access to international credit markets.
  79. 2016 – Britain and Argentina sign an agreement to identify the remains of 123 Argentine buried soldiers who died in the Falklands War in 1982.
  80. 2017 – Mauricio Macri’s coalition wins decisively in a parliamentary election seen as a referendum on his market reform policies.
  81. 2018 – Government raises interest rates dramatically to shore up the tumbling value of the peso currency.
  82. 2019 – Peronist candidate Alberto Fernández is elected president, with (former president) Cristina Fernández de Kirchner as his vice president. The country faces economic challenges and political tensions.
  83. 2020 – The COVID-19 pandemic hits Argentina, leading to strict lockdowns and economic disruption.
  84. 2021 – Argentina celebrates the bicentennial of its independence, but the country continues to face economic and political challenges.
  85. 2020 (to 2023) – COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than 130,000 deaths in Argentina.
  86. 2023 – Argentina has 46 million people.

© Comasters May 2023.

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